Final results of a 1.5 year study of sediment transport in Millers Creek within the City of Ann Arbor were recently released at a public meeting on February 5. The city contracted with Environmental Consulting & Technology, Inc. to conduct the study following a series of flooding events near the mouth of the creek. These floods were due to a new course the creek was taking following sediment build-up in its floodway. The study estimated that 47 tons of sediment were deposited in Ruthven Nature Area over a five-year period.
The study recommends a range of small and large projects to reduce future accumulation or sediment transport to the Huron River. Recommendations run from simple annual maintenance activities priced at $2-3,000 per year, but yielding little sediment removal, to the $1.5 million stream restoration design HRWC helped develop for the former Pfizer property (now owned by the University of Michigan). Recommended projects include a sediment trap and removal approach, as well as channel modification (and restoration) to reduce sediment loading at the source. Some recommendations can be undertaken directly by the City of Ann Arbor alone, while others require participation from Ann Arbor Public Schools or the University of Michigan. All recommended projects would further benefit the Huron River by reducing sediment and nutrient loading from Millers Creek.
City staff will share the study with the city council and submit select recommendations for stormwater funding. Take a look for yourself at the project website.
It’s the end of the first week of September, and, for many of us, the start of a new school year (at least for our kids). As the days start getting shorter, the leaves start falling and the nights begin to cool, this time of year often causes me to reflect on the past year or at least the past summer.
In particular, last night, as I ran along the river, I reflected on the many ways I’ve interacted with the Huron over the past summer and year. Like a number of us on staff, I like to run along the many trails that border the river. Last night, as sunset was approaching, the river and natural area views were particularly striking. It reminded me how hard many of us have worked to protect these important ecosystems and how lucky we are to have a high quality river because of it.
As I ran along the river, I observed some bikers out for a challenge among the riverside hills, a few paddlers out for a late afternoon float, two sets of high school seniors posing for their senior photos, and different sets of rowers perfecting their technique on the impounded quiet waters of Argo Pond. People experience the river in many different ways, and, for most of us, the relationship is a personal one. The river can be a source of challenge, a source of inspiration and energy, a muse, or a place of solitude. The river can provide provide physical, emotional and spiritual sustenance.
I personally have found myself in the Huron’s waters quite often this summer in many old and some surprisingly new ways. Each experience provided a slightly new perspective on this tremendous resource that I spend so much of my life working to maintain. I invite any of you reading this post to share your experiences with the Huron (or any other of Michigan’s many waters) this summer. We would love to read about them.
I hope your summer was as refreshing as mine and that you will continue to work with me and the rest of the staff here at HRWC to pass along this tremendous legacy to those who just embarked on a new year of learning and exploration. Roll on, sister Huron!
For the first time in the three-year run of the event, I was finally confident enough to give the Huron River Single-Fly Tournament a try — and I am so glad that I did! It was great to meet the 24 passionate anglers and hear how much they knew about the river, the fish, their food and habitat. Many told me how happy they were to have a quality river with lots of healthy fish running through a dynamic, urban population center.
Proceeds from the entrance fees and donations went to our “River Up!” initiative. The tournament raised over $3,000 for the program, as all fees and donations were matched by the Erb Foundation. That money will be used in the program to clean up areas along the river, improve access, and transform the Huron River corridor into a recreation destination.
Mike Schultz, partners and staff at Schultz Outfitters did a great job organizing the event and making sure everyone had a fun and safe time. He and his crew provide equipment and advice to make it easy for noobs like me.
As all the teams went to to their favorite spots, I was impressed by the number and variety of good fishing locations offered to me and my partner, Sean (pictured below at an undisclosed location). We chose a busy section at Island Park in Ann Arbor to start, where we met dozens of paddlers and tubers all interested in what we were catching (quite a few little small-mouth bass, as it turned out). It was great to see such a variety of activities taking place on our river.
As we moved to a different site, the traffic subsided and I was reminded about the power the river possesses. The ample rain we’ve had has kept river flows up, which has made for interesting paddling and fishing conditions. While it had not rained much over the previous week, the river flow was still up, thanks to the abundant natural land cover that keeps the groundwater flow slow and strong. We noticed that some earlier canoeists may not have been ready for these conditions earlier in the season.
While I enjoyed my time casting into spots that looked like good hiding places for big fish, as the river gently, but noticeably embraced me, I was reminded of the connection to the natural world that inspired me to become a watershed planner in the first place. Whether it is fishing, paddling, rowing, swimming, or just taking a stroll along its banks, I encourage you all to get out and enjoy this wonderful resource we have in our back yards. Then come back and do what you can to make it even better.
To see who won the Single Fly Tournament and plan for your participation next year, visit the tournament webpage.
On Thursday, I met with 26 folks from around Washtenaw County to talk about how we can transform stormwater infrastructure from grey to green. In this first of our Growing Green Infrastructure Forums, we talked broadly about the differences between conventional grey stormwater infrastructure (the gutters, ditches and pipes) and green infrastructure (practices using natural landscapes to infiltrate stormwater runoff). We also differentiated the broadly planned green infrastructure (GI) approach from site-focused Low Impact Development (LID) (see our webpage on LID vs GI). Josh Miller, an HRWC intern this year, discussed barriers to GI development that he discovered in interviews and research over the last year. Finally, I gave the group some maps of the watershed in Washtenaw County with GI opportunity areas identified and asked them to think about what was possible in each of their jurisdictions.
There was quite a bit of good discussion about what is possible and what is holding GI development back. It was clear from the discussion that the GI approach to stormwater management is being applied all around us and throughout the country. There is ample information about the water quality, aesthetic and economic benefits of the GI approach, and its applicability in the upper midwest. However, local examples need to be better promoted and policies and funding mechanisms like stormwater utilities need to be used more broadly.
All the discussion got me to thinking about a trip my family and I just took to Seattle and Vancouver earlier this Spring. There, GI is the norm rather than the exception for new projects and redevelopment. Neighborhoods around the city are vibrant, active and becoming even greener than they were (see photos). People there strongly identify with and take advantage of their connection with water, and this mindset drives their commitment to address what, according to the US EPA, is the greatest source of water pollution in the country — stormwater runoff. Sure, the Emerald City is not SE Michigan, but as Scott Dierks said at the Forum, “rain is the same, good-draining soils are the same, and deep-rooted plants all crave water the same.”
It is time for us to acknowledge that Seattle, Philadelphia, Chicago and Milwaukee are no longer the exceptions, and get to work greening our stormwater systems. Those who participated in the Forum are making a good start in their communities in Washtenaw County.
2012 was a dry year for the watershed. No significant storms occurred after mid-April, and very little precipitation fell at all through the entire month of July. Flows in the river and tributary streams hit record lows in late July and early August. What effect did this dry spring and summer have on the water quality in the watershed? Results from HRWC’s Water Quality Monitoring Program help answer this question.
The program had a banner year in 2012 with the greatest number of volunteers (49) trained and deployed to the most sites (36) across three counties. HRWC added 14 new sites in 2012 alone as the program expanded into Wayne County. This diligent corps of dedicated volunteers collected nearly 500 sets of water quality samples for analysis at municipal labs administered by the cities of Ann Arbor and Brighton and the Ypsilanti Communities Utility Authority (YCUA).
The state of Michigan does not have a numerical standard for phosphorus levels, but 50 µg/l is used for area lakes as a level to stay below in order to avoid serious algae blooms and fish kills. Concentrations of total phosphorus (TP) in monitored streams were roughly the same, on average, as the past two years. Wayne County streams (which include some that drain directly to the Detroit River) had the highest mean concentration at 100 µg/l, while Washtenaw County streams averaged 80 µg/l, and Livingston County streams were much lower at 30 µg/l. The portion of the watershed in Livingston County retains more wetland area (wetlands filter phosphorus), and a smaller developed or urbanized area than in Washtenaw or Wayne County. Mean stream flow, or discharge, was much less in 2012 than in previous years resulting in an overall “load” of phosphorus (i.e., the total mass of phosphorus moving downstream over a given period of time) from these streams that was lower than in previous years. Also, sediments (measured as Total Suspended Sediments or TSS) were slightly lower on average this year. Fewer storms means less erosion, or soil runoff, which may have also helped to keep phosphorus levels down, since phosphorus readily attaches to soil particles.
Bacteria Still a Health Concern
Bacteria levels, as measured by Eschericia coli, continue to be high in several areas of the watershed during 2012. Levels regularly exceeded state standards for human health in most monitored tributary streams in Washtenaw and Wayne counties. Notable exceptions were Woods Creek, Fleming Creek, and the Huron River upstream of Ann Arbor. Efforts to identify specific sources of bacteria in Honey Creek in Scio Township were not particularly fruitful. Bacteria counts were high throughout the streams of Honey Creek, and genetic tracking showed that a wide variety of animals contributes to the problem (including humans).
Stormwater Runoff Problem Persists
While the lack of major storms this season may have reduced the overall amount of erosion and other runoff pollution, tributary streams continue to exhibit unnatural flows. Streams throughout Wayne County (with the exception of Woods Creek) and the urbanized areas of Washtenaw County exhibited much higher peak flows following storms than would be expected from the size of their watersheds, and the flows returned to low flow much more quickly. Notably, at the driest points in July and August, some smaller creeks stopped flowing altogether. Typically, unaltered perennial streams should continue to receive sufficient groundwater in-flow even through the drought experienced in 2012.
Some of these flow characteristics also led to dissolved oxygen levels that were below state standards set to protect aquatic life. The streams in question are ones that were severely channelized (straightened and deepened), and the low water levels isolated sections from in-flow of oxygen-rich water, causing them to stagnate for long periods. Bugs, fish and other aquatic life will return to these creeks as flow returns, but they will have a difficult time sustaining a healthy, diverse population over the long term with such periodic oxygen starvation. While a number of programs and projects to reduce stormwater runoff are encouraging, these results suggest there is still a long way to go.
The Water Quality Monitoring Program is funded by local government agencies through HRWC partnerships for stormwater and watershed management.
The Washtenaw County Rain Garden program has been building and planting rain gardens for 7 years, and in that time, they have learned a thing or two about what makes them successful. They are offering Master Rain Gardener training beginning this month. While I have not taken the class myself, I have seen the work of some of the graduates, and their gardens inspired my own efforts at home.
Rain Gardens provide working Green Infrastructure for home owners to clean and cool stormwater so that our streams and rivers run clean. Stormwater runoff is a major source of pollution, and rain gardens can help address the problem. Anyone can plant one in their own back (or front) yard. Visit the Master Rain Gardener Hall of Fame (photos).
Help spread the word in the tradition of the MSU Extension’s Master Gardener program by becoming a Master Rain Gardener Volunteer.
Master Rain Gardener Training Class
Wednesday mornings 9:30am-12:30, January 16 – February 13, 2013.
Attendees must attend all five classes, and plant a rain garden to receive their Master Rain Gardener “Blue Thumb” certificate.
Location: 705 N. Zeeb, MSU Extension Classroom
Cost: $80 (Scholarships available)
Instructors: Harry Sheehan, Shannan Gibb-Randall, RLA, Susan Bryan, MLA
To register, visit the Master Rain Gardener information page.
On a crisp Thursday morning last week, as the sun rose over the pond formed by Argo Dam in Ann Arbor, 25 owners and operators of small dams within the Huron River watershed gathered to discuss their management and responsibilities for the dams.
Here are some of the highlights:
Elizabeth Riggs provided background information and statistics about dams in the watershed, in Michigan and around the nation. The majority of dams in the watershed are more than 40 years old, which presents a significant maintenance issue across the watershed as these dams may be approaching (or passed!) their design life. Elizabeth also discussed the growing national trend of dam removal. She indicated that removal can be 3 to 5 times less expensive than dam reconstruction, and funding is available for removal, but not reconstruction.
Luke Trumble, environmental engineer with the Hydrologic Studies and Dam Safety Unit of MDEQ, spoke to the group about the state’s regulation of dams and how it impacts dam owners. He emphasized liabilities associated with dams and the importance of inspection for dam safety. He indicated that owners of high-hazard dams are about 95% compliant with inspection and maintenance regulations. MDEQ inspects state-owned and municipally-owned dams upon request. Private owners must hire private, licensed engineers.
Shawn Middleton, engineer with the Spicer Group, presented on dam inspection and maintenance considerations and the economics of dam management. He highlighted observable evidence of dam deterioration, what to do about it, and how to quantify and minimize cost. One interesting point of discussion was that most of the older dams were not designed for the flood sizes that can be expected in the near future. For example, storms have caused dam failure in western parts of the state in recent years.
Following the presentations, Laura Rubin facilitated a discussion with the attendees and speakers on topics such as restoring river systems following a long period as a dammed system; dam ownership and transfer; and hydropower cost vs. revenue. Cost/benefit analysis in Michigan is showing that converting to hydropower is a liability rather than a benefit financially.
Leading up to the seminar, HRWC has worked to inventory the dams in the watershed and collect information about the structures, their ponds, owners and management. Dam owners and operators were surveyed to update information in the dam database. During this process, more dams, many which are too small to be regulated by the state, were discovered. The large dam operators on the river mainstem recently formed an informal association to establish communication and share information. The smaller dam owners were invited to last Thursday’s seminar.
Presentations and Links of Interest are now available at www.hrwc.org/events/past-seminars.
Public Meeting, Monday, September 10, 7pm, Ann Arbor City Hall
In 2002, HRWC worked with partners to study severe erosion issues and recommend actions to restore the creek. The result was the Millers Creek Improvement Plan. The plan was recognized by the U.S. EPA as a model of an effective and complete plan. It made numerous recommendations for remediation and restoration, most of which focused on addressing the flashy flows. Many recommendations were implemented in a targeted neighborhood through the Millers Creek Rainwater Project.
The plan did not make recommendations to address the sediment that has been accumulating at the downstream portion of the creek, particularly in the City of Ann Arbor’s Ruthven Park. Sediment accumulation led to alteration of stream flow and periodic flooding across Geddes Road at Millers’ confluence with the Huron in Geddes Pond.
The City of Ann Arbor engaged Environmental Consulting and Technology, Inc. to characterize and and quantify the sediment accumulation and make recommendations for management in Ruthven Park. The consultants and city staff are hosting an initial public meeting on Monday, September 10 at 7 pm at the City Hall. To hear more about what they have learned thus far and what they are planning to do, or to get your questions answered, see the City’s press release and join me at the meeting!
I recently did a survey of USGS gage stations in the watershed. I noticed a couple interesting things. First, most are below average for this time of the year. It’s been dry, no surprise. Next, take a look at the Kent Lake level at the dam for the past quarter. One can observe how the Huron-Clinton Metropark Authority (who manages the Kent Lake Dam) allowed the lake to fill 3 feet over the span of about a month, and are now operating at “run of the river.” Three feet represents quite a volume in Kent Lake, and holding back that flow undoubtedly altered flow levels downstream until early May. Thankfully, it was done slowly so the effect would be minimized.
Levels downstream are somewhat below average, though. See the Huron @ Hamburg Rd. (between Ore and Strawberry Lakes). It is just below the 25th percentile for the 60 year record. This means that the river flow is among the 25% lowest for this time of year over the last 60 years. The result is much less supply for Strawberry Lake and other lakes in the Chain of Lakes that do not have managed water levels. It also contrasts with the last two years, which were wetter than average.
Further downstream in Ann Arbor, the river is even more below average rates. That station is well below the 25th percentile based on almost 100 years of recordings. It is also important to recognize the extreme fluctuations at this point in the river. Due to its location below a series of two dams and several large stormwater outfalls, the river experiences erratic flows that can take it from 150 cfs to over 1000 cfs and back again in the span of a few hours! These unnatural flow patterns make it difficult for aquatic life to survive and could pose a hazard to anyone in the river at that time.
In general, it looks like most of Michigan is seeing the same dryness. The state map shows conditions of USGS gage stations across the state prior to this week’s small rains. Red and orange are exhibiting below average flows, and green is within an average range. Flows have recovered somewhat with the rains, but will soon diminish again if it remains dry. Given the lack of snow this winter, we may be in for a long, dry summer.
A section of Traver Creek that runs through Leslie Park Golf Course in Ann Arbor will be reconstructed later this year to improve and restore many of its natural features. The City of Ann Arbor and Washtenaw County Water Resources Commissioner are funding the project to address a section of the creek that has eroded over time.
The project partners are holding a public event to discuss the draft design tonight, April 30 at 7:30 pm at the Leslie Science Center. The meeting is open to all.
The project will also reconstruct portions of ponds at either end of the creek section. Those ponds will be deepened to provide more rainwater storage capacity and be redesigned to provide sediment settling areas.
Eroded stream banks will be reshaped and repaired, and a new floodplain area will be created along a portion of the creek. This “two-stage” design provides streamside wetlands that slow flood waters down and filter out nutrients and pollutants. Additional wetland areas will also be recreated where there is evidence of their previous existence. The wetlands provide further stormwater filtration capacity as well as wildlife habitat. A secondary stream channel will also be re-established where it used to run prior to construction of the golf course. The whole project will be vegetated with native plant materials.
The project will begin following the end of the golf season and should be mostly completed by the spring start of the 2013 golf season. HRWC are monitoring the site before and after construction to measure its impact. Benefits should include runoff volume, phosphorus and sediment reductions to address problems identified in watershed management plans.